These collected books, articles, and web-based resources may be helpful in the further study of Black inventors and innovators.
General Overviews and Collections
Black Inventor Online Museum, http://blackinventor.com/.
Carson, Michael A. African-American Inventions That Changed The World: Influential Inventors and Their Revolutionary Creations. Grayson, GA: Double Infinity, 2017.
Holmes, Keith C. Black Inventors, Crafting Over 200 Years of Success. Brooklyn, NY: Global Black Inventor Research Projects, 2008.
James, Portia P. The Real McCoy: African-American Invention and Innovation, 1619–1930. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989.
Library of Congress bibliographies:
Pursell, Carroll W., ed. A Hammer in Their Hands: A Documentary History of Technology and the African-American Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2005.
Sinclair, Bruce, ed. Technology and the African-American Experience: Needs and Opportunities for Study. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
Sluby, Patricia Carter. The Entrepreneurial Spirit of African American Inventors. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2011.
Sluby, Patricia Carter. The Inventive Spirit of African Americans: Patented Ingenuity. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Walker, Juliet E. K., ed. Encyclopedia of African American Business History. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.
Walker, Juliet E. K., ed. The History of Black Business in America: Capitalism, Race, Entrepreneurship, Volume 1, to 1865, 2ndedition. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Books for Young Readers
Aaseng, Nathan. Black Inventors. New York, NY: Facts on File, 1997.
Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem and Raymond Obstfeld. What Color Is My World?: The Lost History of African-American Inventors. Somerville, MA: Candlewick, 2012.
Barton, Chris. Whoosh! Lonnie Johnson's Super-Soaking Stream of Inventions. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge, 2016.
Dickmann, Nancy. Lewis Latimer: The Man Behind a Better Light Bulb. North Mankato, MN: Pebble, 2020.
Haber, Louis. Black Pioneers of Science and Invention. New York, NY: Harcourt, 1970.
Hudson, Wade. Scientists, Healers, and Inventors: An Introduction for Young Readers. East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 2003.
Jackson, Garnet Nelson. Garrett Morgan, Inventor. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press, 1993.
Kamkwamba, William and Bryan Mealer. The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind. New York, NY: Dial Books for Young Readers, 2012.
Lord, Michelle. Patricia's Vision: The Doctor Who Saved Sight. New York, NY: Sterling Children's Books, 2020.
McLaurin, Patrice. Have You Thanked an Inventor Today? Lawrenceville, GA: Digital Arts Publishing, 2016.
Sullivan, Otha Richard. African American Inventors. New York, NY: Wiley, 1998.
Towle, Wendy. The Real McCoy: The Life of an African-American Inventor. New York, NY: Scholastic, 1993. .
Aaseng, Nathan. 1997. Black Inventors. New York: Fact on File.
Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem and Raymond Obstfeld. 2012. What Color Is My World?: The Lost History of African-American Inventors. Somerville, MA: Candlewick.
American Intellectual Property Lawyers Association. 2015. “Report of the Economic Survey.” https://www.aipla.org/detail/journal-issue/2015-report-of-the-economic-survey.
American Intellectual Property Lawyers Association. 2019. “Report of the Economic Survey.” https://www.aipla.org/detail/journal-issue/2019-report-of-the-economic-survey.
Akcigit, Ufuk, John Grigsby, and Tom Nicholas. 2017. “Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity.” American Economic Review 107, no. 5 (May): 327–31.
Allen, Will W. and Daniel Alexander Payne Murray. 1921. Banneker, the Afro-American Astronomer. Washington, DC: [publisher not identified].
Anderson, James D. 1988. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Baker, Henry E. 1900. Negro Patentees of the United States, 1834–1900, 4 vols. Washington, DC: Moorland-Springarn Research Center, Howard University.
Baker, Henry E. 1902. “The Negro as an Inventor.” In Twentieth Century Negro Literature, edited by D. W. Culp, 399–413. Naperville, IL: J. L. Nichols.
Baker, Henry E. 1913. The Colored Inventor: A Record of Fifty Years. New York: The Crisis Publishing Company.
Banks, Adam J. 2005. Race, Rhetoric and Technology: Searching for Higher Ground. New York: Routledge.
Baraka, Imamu Amiri. 1971. “Technology & Ethos.” In Raise, Race, Rays, Raze: Essays Since 1965, edited by Imamu Amiri Baraka, 155–157. New York: Random House.
Barton, Chris. 2016. Whoosh! Lonnie Johnson’s Super-Soaking Stream ofInventions. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge.
Bedini, Silvio A. 1972. The Life of Benjamin Banneker. New York: Scribner.
Bell, Alex, Raj Chetty, Xavier Jaravel, Neviana Petkova, and John Van Reenen. 2019. “Who Becomes an Inventor inAmerica? The Importance of Exposure to Innovation.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 134, no. 2 (May): 647–713.
Bell, Christopher M., ed. 2012. Blackness and Disability: Critical Examinations and Cultural Interventions. Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.
Benjamin, Ruha, ed. 2019a. Captivating Technology: Race, Carceral Technoscience, and Liberatory Imagination in Everyday Life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Benjamin, Ruha. 2019b. Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Bernstein, Shai Benjamin, Rebecca Diamond, Timothy McQuade, and Beatriz Pousada. 2019. “The Contribution of High-Skilled Immigrants to Innovation in the United States.” Working Paper, Stanford University. https://web.stanford.edu/~diamondr/BDMP_2019_0709.pdf.
Bethencourt, Francisco. 2013. Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Brock, André. 2012. “From the Blackhand Side: Twitter as a Cultural Conversation.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56, no. 4, 529–49.
Brock, André. 2018. “Critical Technocultural Discourse Analysis.” New Media and Society 20, no. 3, 1012–1030.
Brock, André. 2020. Distributed Blackness: African American Cybercultures. New York: NYU Press.
Brodie, James Michael. 1993. Created Equal: The Lives and Ideas of Black American Innovators. New York: William Morrow.
Brown, Adrienne. 2017. The Black Skyscraper: Architecture and the Perception of Race. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Brown, Tamara L., Gregory S. Parks, and Clarenda M. Phillips. 2005. African American Fraternities and Sororities:The Legacy and the Vision. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Browne, Simone. 2015. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bundles, A’Lelia. 2001. On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C. J. Walker. New York: Scribner.
Burkhalter, Byron. 1999. “Reading Race Online: Discovering Racial Identity in Usenet Discussions.” In Communities in Cyberspace, edited by Marc A. Smith and Peter Kollock, 60–75. New York: Routledge.
Byrne, Dara N. 2007. “Public Discourse, Community Concerns, and Civic Engagement: Exploring Black Social Networking Traditions on BlackPlanet.com.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13, no. 1 (October): 319–340.
Byrne, Dara N. 2008. “The Future of (the) ‘Race’: Identity, Discourse, and the Rise of Computer-Mediated Public Spheres.” In Learning Race and Ethnicity: Youth and Digital Media, edited by Anna Everett, 15–38. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carney, Judith A. 2002. Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carney, Judith A. and Richard Nicholas Rosomoff. 2009. In the Shadow of Slavery: Africa’s Botanical Legacy in the Atlantic World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Catlin-Legutko, Cinnamon. 2017. “History That Promotes Understanding in a Diverse Society.” In The Future of History: Historians, Historical Organizations, and the Prospects for the Field, edited by Conrad Edick Wright and Katheryn P. Viens, 143–153. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society.
Cheng, Irene, Charles L. Davis II, and Mabel O. Wilson eds. 2020. Race and Modern Architecture: A Critical History from the Enlightenment to the Present. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Cook, Lisa D. 2007. African American Inventors Data Set, 2004, updated in 2005, 2007.
Cook, Lisa D. and Chaleampong Kongcharoen. 2010. “The Idea Gap in Pink and Black.” NBER Working Paper 16331.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Cook, Lisa D. 2011. “Inventing Social Capital: Evidence from African American Inventors, 1843–1930.” Explorations in Economic History 48, no. 4 (December): 507–18.
Cook, Lisa D. 2012. “Overcoming Discrimination by Consumers during the Age of Segregation: The Example of Garrett Morgan.” Business History Review 86, no. 2 (Summer): 211–34.
Cook, Lisa D. 2014. “Violence and Economic Activity: Evidence from African American Patents, 1870–1940.” Journal of Economic Growth 19, no. 2 (June): 221–257.
Cook, Lisa D. and Yanyan Yang. 2018. “Missing Women and Minorities: Implications for Innovation and Growth.” Working paper. Philadelphia, PA: The Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association.
Cook, Lisa D. 2019. “The Innovation Gap in Pink and Black.” In Does America Need More Innovators? edited by Matthew Wisnioski, Eric S. Hintz, and Marie Stettler Kleine, 221–247. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cook, Lisa D. and Jan Gerson. 2019. “The Implications of U.S. Gender and Racial Disparities in Income and Wealth Inequality at Each Stage of the Innovation Process.” Policy brief. Washington, DC: Washington Center for Equitable Growth.
Cook, Lisa D. 2020. “Policies to Broaden Participation in the Innovation Process.” Policy proposal. Washington, DC:The Hamilton Project / The Brookings Institution.
Covey, Herbert C. 2007. African American Slave Medicine: Herbal and Non-Herbal Treatments. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books.
Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. 2007. The Early Black History Movement, Carter G. Woodson, and Lorenzo Johnston Greene. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Daly, Ann. Forthcoming. “‘Every Dollar Brought from the Earth’: Money, Slavery, and Southern Gold Mining, 1828–1858.” Journal of the Early Republic.
Davis, Michael. 2008. Street Gang: The Complete History of Sesame Street. New York: Viking.
Department of Energy. 1979. “Black Contributors to Science and Energy Technology.” Washington, DC: Department of Energy / Office of Public Affairs. https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Black+Contributors+to+Science+and+Energy+Technology&id=ED170154.
DiAngelo, Robin. 2018. White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Dickmann, Nancy. 2020. Lewis Latimer: The Man Behind a Better Light Bulb. North Mankato, MN: Pebble.
Digital Undivided. 2020. “The State of Black and LatinX Women Founders.” ProjectDiane2020. https://www.projectdiane.com.
Duffin, Karen and Mary Childs. 2020. “Patent Racism.” June 12, 2020. Planet Money podcast. With Lisa D. Cook. https://www.npr.org/2020/06/12/876097416/patent-racism.
Eglash, Ron. 1999. African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Eliav-Feldon, Miriam, Benjamin Isaac, and Joseph Ziegler, eds. 2009. The Origins of Racism in the West. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Engineering Education Research Briefs. 2020. “What Does It Mean to Be an Anti-Racist Engineering Education Researcher?” September 28, 2020. Podcast by Dr. Ruth Streveler with James Holly Jr. https://engineering.purdue.edu/ENE/Research/podcast?_ga=2.188007466.3086025.1627937749-248228190.1627937749.
Eubanks, Virginia. 2017. Automating Inequality: How High-Tech ToolsProfile, Police, and Punish the Poor. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Finney, Carolyn. 2014. Black Faces, White Spaces: Reimagining the Relationship of African Americans to the Great Outdoors. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Florini, Sarah. 2019. Beyond Hashtags: Racial Politics and Black Digital Networks. New York: NYU Press.
Fouché, Rayvon. 2003. Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation: Granville T. Woods, Lewis H. Latimer, and Shelby J. Davidson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fouché, Rayvon. 2006. “Say It Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud: African Americans, American Artifactual Culture, and Black Vernacular Technological Creativity.” American Quarterly 58, no. 3 (September): 639–61.
Fouché, Rayvon. 2011. “From Black Inventors to One Laptop Per Child: Exporting a Racial Politics of Technology.” In Race After the Internet, edited by Lisa Nakamura and Peter Chow-White, 61–84. New Brunswick, NJ: Routledge.
Freelon, Deen, Charlton D. McIlwain, and Meredith Clark. 2016. “Beyond the Hashtags: #Ferguson, #BlackLivesMatter, and the Online Struggle for Offline Justice.” Report. Washington, DC: The Center for Media & Social Impact, American University.
Frye, Brian L. 2018. “Invention of a Slave.” Syracuse Law Review 68, no. 1, 181–229.
Fu, Katherine, Tahira N. Reid, Janis P. Terpenny, Deborah L. Thurston, Judy M. Vance, Susan Finger, Gloria J. Wiens, Kazem Kazerounian, Janet Katherine Allan, and Kathy Jacobson. 2013. "Broadening Participation: A Report on a Series of Workshops Aimed at Building Community and Increasing the Number of Women and Minorities in Engineering Design." Paper ID #6781. Atlanta: Proceedings for the ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition. June 23-26, 2013. https://engineering.purdue.edu/reidlab/assets/2013_ASEE_Fu_Reid%20et%20al.pdf.
Garcia, Cardiff. 2019. “How Economics Excludes Black Women.” December 18, 2019. Planet Money podcast. With Lisa D. Cook. https://www.npr.org/2019/12/18/789555694/how-economics-excludes-black-women.
Gibbs, C. R. 1995. Black Inventors: From Africa to America: Two Million Years of Invention and Innovation. Silver Spring, MD: Three Dimensional Pub.
Ginther, Donna K., Walter T. Schaffer, Joshua Schnell, Beth Masimore, Faye Liu, Laurel L. Haak, and Raynard Kington. 2011. “Race, Ethnicity, and NIH Research Awards.” Science 333, no. 6045 (August 19): 1015–1019.
Glave, Dianne D. 2010. Rooted in the Earth: Reclaiming the African American Environmental Heritage. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
Godin, Benoît and Dominique Vinck eds. 2017. Critical Studies of Innovation: Alternative Approaches to the Pro-Innovation Bias. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Goggin, Jacqueline Anne. 1997. Carter G. Woodson: A Life in Black History. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Goldberg, Arthur F. and James P. Witkowski. 2006. “Beneath His Magic Touch: The Dated Vessels of the African-American Slave Potter Dave.” In Ceramics in America, edited by Robert Hunter, 58–92. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England for the Chipstone Foundation.
Goldberg, David Albert Mhadi. 2004. “The Scratch is Hip-hop: Appropriating the Phonographic Medium.” In Appropriating Technology: Vernacular Science and Social Power, edited by Ron Eglash, Jennifer L. Croissant, Giovanni Di Chiro, and Rayvon Fouché, 107–144. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Grandison, Tyrone. 2018. “Building Inclusive and Diverse Teams.” GovLoop. April 13, 2018. https://www.govloop.com/community/blog/building-inclusive-and-diverse-teams.
Gurin, Patricia, (Ratnesh) A. Nagda Biren, and Gretchen E. Lopez. 2004. “The Benefits of Diversity in Education for Democratic Citizenship.” Journal of Social Issues 60, no. 1, 17–34.
Haber, Louis. Circa 1960s. “The Role of the American Negro in the Fields of Science.” Report. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education.
Haber, Louis. 1970a. Benjamin Banneker: 1731–1806. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Haber, Louis. 1970b. Black Pioneers of Science and Invention. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Hahn, Jaesik, Tikyna Dandridge, Priya Seshadri, Amy Marconnet, and Tahira Reid. 2015. “Integrating Design Methodology, Thermal Sciences, and Customer Needs to Address Challenges in the Hair Care Industry.” Boston: Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. August 2–5, 2015.
Hahn, Jaesik, Tim Felts, Mike Vatter, Tahira Reid, and Amy Marconnet. 2020. “Measurement of Hair Thermal Diffusivity with Infrared Microscopy Enhanced Ångström’s Method.” Materialia 12 (August). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2020.100733.
Hambrick, Arlene. 1993. “Biographies of Black Female Scientists and Inventors: An Interdisciplinary Middle School Curriculum Guide: ‘What Shall I Tell My Children Who Are Black?’” EdD diss., University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Harris, Jessica B. 2011. High on the Hog: A Culinary Journey from Africa to America. New York: Bloomsbury.
Hayden, Robert C. 1972. Eight Black American Inventors. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Herring, Cedric and Loren Henderson. 2015. Diversity in Organizations: A Critical Examination. New York: Routledge.
Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, Melinda Marshall, and Laura Sherbin. 2013. “How Diversity Can Drive Innovation.” Harvard Business Review (December). https://hbr.org/2013/12/how-diversity-can-drive-innovation.
Holly Jr., James. 2018. “‘Of the Coming of James’: A Critical Autoethnography on Teaching Engineering to Black Boys as a Black Man.” PhD diss., Purdue University.
Holly Jr., James. 2020a. “A Critical Autoethnography of a Black man Teaching Engineering to Black Boys.” Journal of African American Males in Education 11, no. 2, 25–42.
Holly Jr., James. 2020b. “Disentangling Engineering Education Research’s Anti-Blackness.” Journal of Engineering Education 109, no. 4, 629–35.
Hudson, Wade. 2003. Book of Black Heroes: Scientists, Healers & Inventors. East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books.
Hunter, J. H. 1942. Saint, Seer and Scientist: The Remarkable Story of George Washington Carver of Tuskeegee, Alabama. New York: Evangelical Publishers.
Jackson, Garnet Nelson. 1993. Garrett Morgan, Inventor. Cleveland, OH: Modern Curriculum Press.
Jackson, Giles B. and D. Webster Davis. 1908. The Industrial History of the Negro Race of the United States. Richmond,VA: The Virginia Press.
Jackson, Sarah J., Moya Bailey, and Brooke Foucault Welles. 2020. #HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Jackson, Zakiyyah Iman. 2020. Becoming Human: Matter and Meaning in an Antiblack World. New York: NYU Press.
James, Portia P. 1990. The Real McCoy: African-American Invention and Innovation, 1619–1930. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Jenkins, Edward S., ed. 1975. “American Black Scientists and Inventors.” Washington, DC: National Science Teachers Association.
Johnson, Jessica Marie. 2020. Wicked Flesh: Black Women, Intimacy, and Freedom in the Atlantic World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Johnson, Shontavia. 2017. “America’s Always Had Black Inventors—Even when the Patent System Excluded Them.” The Conversation, 14 February 2017. https://theconversation.com/americas-always-had-black-inventors-even-when-the-patent-system-explicitly-excluded-them-72619.
Johnson, Shontavia. 2019. "The Colorblind Patent System and Black Inventors." Landslide 11, no. 4 (March-April). https://www.americanbar.org/groups/intellectual_property_law/publications/landslide/2018-19/march-april/colorblind-patent-system-black-inventors.
Kamkwamba, William and Bryan Mealer. 2012. The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers.
Kendi, Ibram X. 2012. The Black Campus Movement: Black Students and the Racial Reconstitution of Higher Education,1965–1972. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kendi, Ibram X. 2016. Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. New York: Nation Books.
Kim, Kyung Hee. 2011. “The Creativity Crisis: The Decrease in Creative Thinking Scores on the Torrance Tests of CreativeThinking.” Creativity Research Journal 23, no. 4, 285–295.
Kimmerer, Robin Wall. 2013. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions.
Kirkfield, Vivian. 2019. Sweet Dreams, Sarah. Berkeley, CA: Creston Books.
Klein, Aaron E. 1971. The Hidden Contributors: Black Scientists and Inventors in America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Kolko, Beth E., Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert B. Rosman, eds. 2000. Race in Cyberspace. New York: Routledge.
Kniggendorf, Anne. 2019. “The Barriers to Funding Equality Persist for Black Women.” Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, May 2, 2019. https://www.kauffman.org/currents/barriers-to-funding-equality-persist-for-black-women.
Lachney, Michael. 2017. “Computational Communities: African-American Cultural Capital in Computer Science Education.” Computer Science Education 27, nos. 3-4, 175–196.
Lachney, Michael, William Babbitt, Audrey Bennett, and Ron Eglash. 2019. “Generative Computing: African-American Cosmetology as a Link between Computing Education and Community Wealth.” Interactive Learning Environments. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1636087.
Lakwete, Angela. 2003. Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Latrobe, John H. B. 1845. Memoir of Benjamin Banneker: Read before the Maryland Historical Society, at the Monthly Meeting, May 1, 1845. Baltimore: John D. Toy.
Lee, Michele E. 2017. Working the Roots: Over 400 Years of Traditional African American Healing. Laurel Hill, NC: Wadastick.
Lee, Sally Ann. 2019. Madam C.J. Walker: The Woman Behind Hair Care Products for African Americans. North Mankato, MN: Pebble.
Lerman, Nina. 2006. “New South, New North: Region, Ideology, and Access in Industrial Education.” In Technology and the African American Experience: Needs and Opportunities for Study, edited by Bruce Sinclair, 77–105. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lopez, Ian. 2020. “Black IP Lawyers Who’ve Made It Look to Grow Ranks Beyond 1.7%.” Bloomberg Law, August 6, 2020. https://news.bloomberglaw.com/ip-law/black-ip-lawyers-whove-made-it-look-to-grow-ranks-beyond-1-7.
Lord, Michelle. 2020. Patricia’s Vision: The Doctor Who Saved Sight. New York: Sterling Children’s Books.
Lovett, Bobby L. 2011. America’s Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Narrative History, 1837–2009. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.
Lyles, Henry Earl. 1976. “Black Inventions.” MA thesis, California State University at Sacramento.
Margo, Robert A. 1990. Race and Schooling in the South, 1880–1950: An Economic History. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Marszalek, John F. 2006. A Black Congressman in the Age of Jim Crow: South Carolina’s George Washington Murray. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
McGee, Ebony O. 2020. Black, Brown, Bruised: How Racialized STEM Education Stifles Innovation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
McGee, Ebony O. and William H. Robinson, eds. 2020. Diversifying STEM: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Race and Gender. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
McIlwain, Charlton. 2020. Black Software: The Internet & Racial Justice, from the AfroNet to Black Lives Matter. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
McKittrick, Katherine. 2006. Demonic Grounds: Black Women and the Cartographies of Struggle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
McLaurin, Patrice. 2016. Have You Thanked an Inventor Today? Lawrenceville, GA: Digital Arts Publishing.
Morrow, Robert W. 2006. Sesame Street and the Reform of Children’sTelevision. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Nakamura, Lisa. 2002. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. New York, NY: Routledge.
Nakamura, Lisa. 2007. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet.Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
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Page, Scott E. 2008. The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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Perry, Tony. 2018. “To Go to Nature’s Manufactory: The Material Ecology of Slavery in Antebellum Maryland.” PhDdiss., University of Maryland.
Pickens, Therí Alyce. 2019. Black Madness :: Mad Blackness. Durham: Duke University Press.
Picott, J. Rupert. 1977. Black Contributors to Science and Invention. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History.
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Pryor, Pamela Cheyenne. 1970. “The Development of a Resource Unit Entitled ‘Contributions of Twentieth Century Black Scientists.’” PhD diss., Emory University.
Pursell, Carroll W. ed. 2005. A Hammer in Their Hands: A Documentary History of Technology and the African-American Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Riordan, Teresa. 2000. “Patents; An Inventor MakesGgood on a Third-Grade Notion.” The New York Times, February 14, 2000.
Roberge, Marie-Élène and Van Dick, Rolf. 2010. “Recognizing the Benefits of Diversity: When and How Does Diversity Increase Group Performance?” Human Resource Management Review, 20, no. 4, 295–308.
Rojas, Fabio. 2007. From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rose, Tricia. 1989. “Orality and Technology: Rap Music and Afro‐American Cultural Resistance.” Popular Music and Society 13, no. 4, 35–44.
Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Rosenthal, Caitlin. 2018. Accounting for Slavery: Masters and Management. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Scott, Robert H. III. 2009. “The Use of Credit Card Debt by New Firms.” The Kauffman Firm Survey. https://www.kauffman.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/kfs_credit_card_debt_report.pdf.
Scott, Yvonne L. 1977. “Contributions of Black American Scientists and Inventors to the Growth of America and the World.” MA thesis, San Francisco State University.
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Seshadri, Priya and Tahira Reid. 2015. "Novice Engineers' Predisposition to Compassionate Design." Milan, Italy: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED15). July 27-30, 2015. https://engineering.purdue.edu/reidlab/assets/2015_ICED_Seshadri%20and%20Reid.pdf.
Silver, David. 2000. “Margins in the Wires: Looking for Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Blacksburg Electronic Village.” In Race in Cyberspace: Politics, Identity, and Cyberspace, edited by B. E. Kolko, L. Nakamura, and G. B.Rodman, 133–150. New York: Routledge.
Simons, Lisa M. Bolt. 2018. Madam C. J. Walker: Inventor and Businesswoman. North Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
Sinclair, Bruce, ed. 2004. Technology and the African-American Experience: Needs and Opportunities for Study. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Slaton, Amy E. 2010. Race, Rigor, and Selectivity in U.S. Engineering: The History of an Occupational Color Line. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sluby, Patricia Carter. 2004. The Inventive Spirit of African Americans: Patented Ingenuity. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Sluby, Patricia Carter. 2011. The Entrepreneurial Spirit of African American Inventors. Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Circular image above: James McLurkin set out to build his first robot when he was 15. He became a pioneer in swarm robotics.